Douglass is a city in Butler County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 1,700. The first settlement was made at Douglass in 1869. Douglass is named for its founder, Joseph W. Douglass, a storeowner who was fatally shot at the town site in 1873 while apprehending a suspected thief. Douglass was incorporated as a city of the third class in 1879. In 1877, the Florence, El Dorado, and Walnut Valley Railroad Company built a branch line from Florence to El Dorado, in 1881 it was extended to Douglass, and later to Arkansas City. The line was leased and operated by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. The line from Florence to El Dorado was abandoned in 1942. The original branch line connected Florence, Burns, De Graff, El Dorado, Augusta, Douglass, Rock, Akron, Winfield, Arkansas City.