Chapman is a city in Dickinson County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 1,393. The first settlement was made at Chapman in 1868, and the same year Jackman's mill was built on Chapman creek a little northeast of the present town. James Streeter and S. M. Strickler laid out the town in 1871. It was named from the Chapman Creek. The first post office at Chapman was established in 1866, but the post office was given the name Chapman's Creek until 1872.